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Friday, September 11, 2009

Jose Torres Bugallon

Jose Torres Bugallon (b. August 28, 1873 – d. February 5, 1899) a revolutionary soldier, was officer in command of the Filipino army who fought the Spaniards in the Battle of La Loma in 1899. In 1896, he went to Toledo, Spain where he studied military organization and warfare. By December 10, 1898, after the Treaty of Paris, he worked as aide-de-camp of General Antonio Luna.

Jose's father was from Baliwag, Bulacan and his mother was from a well-known Gonzalez family of Pangasinan. He was in the guardian of Rufino Villacruz who was a well-known schoolmaster of San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. In 1888, he studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he took up his secondary course, with excellent grades. He entered the Seminary of San Carlos but his real passion was to became a soldier, he took up a military entrance exam. After passing the validation, he was granted to study at the Military Academy of Toledo, Spain, 1892, where he studied for three years and concentrated in the study of military organization and warfare.

Upon his return, he was appointed second lieutenant by the Spanish army and served under the 70th Infantry regiment . After the batlle of Talisay, Batangas,May 30, 1897, he was promoted to captain and was awarded the highest medal of San Fernando. He was also awarded with Cross of Maria Cristina and the Red Cross for Military Honor (Cruz Roja Del Merito Militar). After the Treaty of Paris, he obtained clearance papers. When the Americans came to the Philippines on February 1899, he joined the the rebels. Gen. Antonio Luna needed instructors for his officers in the European art of warfare at Malolos,Bulacan. He was the aide-de-camp and the recruiter of the Spanish war veteran. His knowledge was very instrumental in the reorganization and dicipline of the Filipino soldiers at that time.

On February 5, 1899, he was in La Loma defending the fronline. The Americans under Gen. Douglas MacArthur were attacking their defences at that time. They were outflanked, thus exposing Bugallon to the advanced firepower of the enemies, he was hit by a bullet in the thighs. Col. Queri told Gen. Luna that Bugallon was wounded, The general ordered: " Bugallon wounded. Order forward. He must be saved at all cost. Bugallon is worth 500 Filipino soldiers . he is one of my hopes for future victory." After which, the general found him along side of the road. All that he could utter was "My..... don't expose yourself so much. Don't advance any further." He was withdrawn by Commander Hernando and Gen. Luna himself, he was taken to Kalookan medical station where he was given first aid by Dr. Jose Luna and Santiago Barcelona. Later was rushed by train to Malolos, Bulacan for hospitalization, somewhere after Lolomboy and nearing Bocaue, Bulacan, Bugallon asked "Have the reinforcement arrived?", But he was too weak to keep up and he was bleeding, he died in the greast of Gen. Antonio Luna.

Bugallon was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel after his display of gallantry in battle and heroism. The former town of Salasa in Pangasinan was renamed Bugallon in honor of Jose Torres Bugallon. This was law sponsored by Congressman Mauro Navarro of Pangasinan in 1921 to perpetute Bugallon's gallantry. His remains lies in Sampalok Church in Manila.

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Don Mariano Ponce

Mariano Ponce (March 23, 1863-May 23, 1918) was a Filipino physician who was a leader of the Propaganda Movement that spurred the Philippine Revolution against Spanish in 1896.

He was born in Baliwag, Bulacan where he completed his primary education. He later enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. In 1881, he left for Europe to continue his medical studies at the Unversidad Central de Madrid.

While he was studying in Spain, he joined Marcelo del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Jose Rizal in the Propaganda Movement which espoused Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes and reforms in the Spanish colonial administration of the Philippines. He wrote in the propaganda publication La Solidaridad under several pseudonyms, including Naning, Kalipulako and Tikbalang.

He was briefly imprisoned when the revolution broke out in August 1896 but was later released. Fearing another arrest, he fled to France and later went to Hong Kong where he joined a group of Filipinos who served as the international front of the ongoing revolution.

In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose him to represent the First Philippine Republic in Japan to seek aid and purchase arms. He went to Yokohama on June 29, 1898. During his stay, he met and befriended Sun Yat Sen, first president of the Republic of China (Sun Yat Sen also supported Philippine Independence by supplying him with arms) and even show sympathy to the Chinese. Mariano married a Japanese woman named Okiyo Udanwara.

With the help of a Filipino-Japanese named Jose Ramos Ishikawa he purchased weapons and munition for the revolution. But the shipment did not reach the country due to a typhoon off the coast of Formosa.

When he returned to the Philippines, he was made director of El Renacimiento in 1909. He also joined the Nacionalista Party and established El Ideal, the party's official organ. He later ran for a seat in the Philippine Assembly and was elected assemblyman for the second district of Bulacan. Ponce wrote his memoirs, Cartas Sobre La Revolucion, before he died in Hong Kong.

Monday, September 7, 2009

Federico I. Abaya

Federico Isabelo Abaya (b. 1854 – d. May 3, 1900) was a member of the Espiritu de Candon, a revolutionary group founded in Candon, Ilocos Sur. He led the Ikkis ti Kandon (in English: Cry of Candon) on March 25, 1898 which drove the Spaniards away and made him declare a free Republic of Candon.

The young Federico, studied at a public school in Candon, Ilocos Sur. He then enroll at Vigan Seminary, but later decided not to pursue his priesthood. An Uncle took him to Pangasinan, where he learned the art of fencing.

Upon his return to his hometown, Federico became a policeman and a cabeza de barangay. In 1898, he joined the Philippine Revolutionary Army, then under Col. Manuel Tinio. At the onset of the Filipino-American War, with his recruited Igorots (under the command of General Antonio Luna), he led the Battle of Caloocan in February, 1899. Later, he became a commander of forces of a guerrilla movement in southern Ilocos headed by Col. Juan Villamor. Federico Abaya was, likewise, responsible for the termination of the Spaniards in Ilocos Sur.

Saturday, September 5, 2009

Nick Joaquin

Nicomedes Márquez Joaquín, usually known as Nick Joaquin (May 4, 1917–April 29, 2004), was a Filipino writer, historian and journalist, best known for his short stories and novels in the English language. He also wrote using the pen name Quijano de Manila. Joaquin was conferred the rank and title of National Artist of the Philippines for Literature.


Joaquín was born in Paco, Manila, one of the ten children of Leocadio, a colonel under General Emilio Aguinaldo in the 1896 Revolution, and Salome Marquez, a teacher of English and Spanish. Being read poems and stories by his mother, Joaquin taught himself by reading widely at the National Library of the Philippines and the library of his father, hwo by that time was a successful lawyer after the revolution. This developed further his interest in writing.

At age 17, Joaquín was first published in the literary section of the Pre-World War II Tribune under writer and editor Serafín Lanot. Before publishing in the Tribune, Joaquin worked as a proofreader of the paper.

After winning a Dominican Order-sponsored nationwide essay competition for La Naval de Manila, the University of Santo Tomas awarded Joaquín an honorary Associate in Arts (A.A.) and a scholarship to St. Albert's Convent, the Dominican monastery in Hong Kong. Upon his return to the Philippines, he joined the Philippines Free Press, starting as a proofreader. Soon, he was noticed for his poems, stories and plays, as well as his journalism under the pen name Quijano de Manila. His journalism was markedly both intellectual and provocative, an unknown genre in the Philippines at that time, raising the level of reportage in the country. Nick Joaquin is interred at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

Joaquín deeply admired José Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines. Joaquín paid tribute to Rizal by way of books such as The Storyteller's New Medium - Rizal in Saga, The Complete Poems and Plays of Jose Rizal, and A Question of Heroes: Essays in Criticism on Ten Key Figures of Philippine History. He also translated the hero's valedictory poem, "Land That I Love, Farewell!"

Joaquín served as a member of Motion Pictures under President Diosdado Macapagal and President Ferdinand E. Marcos. According to writer Marra PL. Lanot, Joaquín was untouched by Marcos' iron fist. Joaqun's first move as National Artist was to secure the release of imprisoned writer José F. Lacaba. Later, at a ceremony on Mount Makiling attended by First Lady Imelda Marcos, Joaquín delivered an invocation to Mariang Makiling, the mountain's mythical maiden. Joaquín touched on the importance of freedom and the artist. As a result, for the remainder of the Marcos regime, Joaquín no longer received invitations to address important cultural events.

Joaquín died of cardiac arrest in the early morning of April 29, 2004. He died in his home in San Juan, Metro Manila. At the time of his death, he was editor of Philippine Graphic magazine and publisher of its sister publication, Mirror Weekly, a women’s magazine. He also wrote columns (“Small Beer”) for the Philippine Daily Inquirer and Isyu, an opinion tabloid.


Tatarin, a movie based on Philippine National Artist Nick Joaqin’s short story The Summer Solstice, was directed by Amable “Tikoy” Aguiliz and released in 2001. The screenplay was written by Ricardo Lee. Nick Joaquin was consulted on his portrayal. The cast consisted of famous Filipino actors Edu Manzano (Paeng Moreta,) Dina Bonnevie (Lupe Moreta), Rica Peralejo (Amada), and Raymond B. Bagatsing.

Works of Nick Joaquin

* Prose and Poems (1952)
* The Woman Who had Two Navels (1961)
* La Naval de Manila and Other Essays (1964)
* A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino(1966)
* Tropical Gothic (1972)
* A Question of Heroes (1977)
* Jeseph Estrada and Other Sketches (1977)
* Nora Aunor & Other Profiles (1977)
* Ronnie Poe & Other Silhouettes (1977)
* Reportage on Lovers (1977)
* Reportage on Crime (1977)
* Amalia Fuentes & Other Etchings (1977)
* Gloria Diaz & Other Delineations (1977)
* Doveglion & Other Cameos (1977)
* Language of the Streets and Other Essays (1977)
* Manila: Sin City and Other Chronicles (1977)
* Tropical Baroque (1979),
* Stories for Groovy Kids (1979)
* Language of the Street and Other Essays (1980)
* The Ballad of the Five Battles (1981)
* The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History as Three Generations (1983)
* Almanac for Manileños
* Cave and Shadows (1983)
* The Quartet of the Tiger Moon: Scenes from the People Power Apocalypse (1986)
* Collected Verse (1987)
* Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming (1988)
* Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young (1990),
* The D.M. Guevara Story (1993),
* Mr. F.E.U., the Culture Hero That Was Nicanor Reyes (1995).
* Rizal in Saga (1996)


* José García Villa's Honor Roll (1940)
* Philippines Free Press Short Story Contest (1949)
* Ten Most Outstanding Young Men of the Philippines (TOYM), Awardee for Literature (1955)
* Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Literary Awards (1957–1958; 1965; 1976)
* Harper Publishing Company (New York, U.S.A.) writing fellowship
* Stonehill Award for the Novel (1960)
* Republic Cultural Heritage Award (1961)
* Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award from the City of Manila (1964)
* National Artist Award (1976).
* S.E.A. Write Award (1980)
* Ramon Magsaysay Award for Literature (1996)
* Tanglaw ng Lahi Award from the Ateneo de Manila University (1997)
* Several ESSO Journalism awards, including the highly-covetedJournalist of the Year Award.
* Several National Book Awards from the Manila Critics' Circle for The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay in History as Three Generations; The Quartet of the Tiger Moon: Scenes from the People Power Apocalypse; Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming; The World of Damian Domingo: 19th Century Manila (co-authored with Luciano P.R. Santiago); and Jaime Ongpin: The Enigma: The Profile of a Filipino as Manager.