Juan dela Cruz is the national personification of the Philippines, often used to represent the "Filipino everyman". He is usually depicted wearing the native salakot hat, Barong Tagalog, long pants, and slippers.
The term was coined by Scottish-born journalist Robert McCulloch Dick, who worked as a court reporter for the Manila Times in the early 1900s. He did so after discovering it was the most common name in police reports.
Activists often portray Juan dela Cruz as a victim of American imperialism, especially since many editorial cartoons of the American period often depicted him alongside Uncle Sam. In modern times, he is shown independently as a venue for the common Filipino's commentary on governmental and social issues.
The term, sometimes shortened to "Juan", also refers to the collective Filipino psyche.
The name (Spanish for "John of the Cross") is often used as a placeholder name for an anonymous individual, roughly the equivalent of the American John Doe. The feminine placeholder is usually María dela Cruz, which like Juan is a common —albeit mostly legal and colloquially rare— first name amongst Filipino women.